In 1776, he was hanged in effigy, which means a doll was made to represent him and it was hanged in the town square in Boston. New York, though, had a disproportionat… The first act was aimed at the New York Assembly. These acts taxed the colonies to pay for their war debts. 1. Here then, let my countrymen rouse themselves, and behold the ruin hanging over their heads! The Townshend Acts (1767) were met with resistance in the colonies, prompting the occupation of Boston by British troops in 1768, which eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770. Building off these ideas, the Massachusetts legislature, under the direction of revolutionary leaders Sam Adams and James Otis Jr., wrote the “Massachusetts Circular,” which was circulated (duh) to the other colonial legislatures and urged the colonies to resist the Townshend Acts in the name of their natural rights as British citizens. As a result, those with dissent as their goal began to more aggressively distribute their perspective, hoping to recruit more sympathy for the movement. 2. After considerable tumult, the Quartering Act was allowed to expire in 1770. iPhone History: A Timeline of Every Model in Order Mason-Dixon Line The History of Guns. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The second son of the 3rd Viscount Townshend, he was educated at Cambridge and Leyden. The Act called for each colony to provide and pay for food, housing and supplies for any British troops staying within that particular colony. The New York Restraining Act The New York Restraining Act was the first of the Townshend Acts to be passed. The revnue used from these duties would be used to pay for the colonial governers and judges. ... 1767 - Townshend Revenue Act 1770 - Boston Massacre 1773 - Tea Act 1773 - Boston Tea Party 1774 - Intolerable or Coercive Acts 1774 - First Continental Congress It also displayed how discontent and dissent were growing rapidly in the colonies — sentiments that would continue to fester until shots were finally fired in 1776, starting the American Revolution and a new era in American history. They are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer who proposed the program. These were payable at colonial ports and fell on lead, glass, paper, paint, and tea. He opposed the Townshend acts and became a major proponent of American resistance to the British. The Townshend Acts were a series of laws passed in 1767 by British Parliament that restructured the administration of the American colonies and placed duties on certain goods being imported into them. They were imposed for importing goods, which was not a direct tax on the consumption of those goods in the colonies. December 1767 – John Dickinson, a Philadelphia lawyer, issued 12 Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. The intent was similar to the Indemnity Act, but it was also meant to help the failing British East India Company — a powerful corporation that had the backing of the king, Parliament, and, most importantly, the British Army — stay afloat so as to continue playing an important role in British imperialism. But, as expected, it did not sit well with the freedom-loving colonists of 1768. Townshend Acts, 1767, originated by Charles Townshend and passed by the English Parliament shortly after the repeal of the Stamp Act. The Boston Massacre. These acts were passed in the colonies after the Stamp Act was repealed. Townshend Acts, (June 15–July 2, 1767), in colonial U.S. history, series of four acts passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to assert what it considered to be its historic right to exert authority over the colonies through suspension of a recalcitrant representative assembly and through strict provisions for the collection of revenue duties. Most of the colonies had relatively few troops in them. Charles Townshend seriously fell victim to wishful thinking with this one. The Townshend Acts were a series of laws passed by the British government on the American colonies in 1767. American colonies - American colonies - Repeal of the Stamp Act: In acting to remove the principal American grievance, the Rockinghamites made no constitutional concessions to the colonists. The Commissioners of Customs Act of 1767 created a new customs board in Boston that was meant to improve the collection of taxes and import duties, and reduce smuggling and corruption. The first of the Townshend Acts, sometimes simply known as the Townshend Act, was the Revenue Act of 1767. Historians vary slightly as to which acts they include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five are often listed: The new revenues were to be used to pay the expenses of governors and judges. His colonies in North America — all thirteen of them — were terribly inefficient at lining his pockets. Such colonial tumult, coupled with the instability of frequently changing British ministries, resulted in repeal—on March 5, 1770, the same day as the Boston Massacre—of all revenue duties except that on tea, lifting of the Quartering Act requirements, and removal of troops from Boston, which thus temporarily averted hostilities. His logic was that these were “indirect,” not direct, taxes. Or, at the very least, these laws got things moving in the right direction. To link to this article in the text of an online publication, please use this URL: https://historycooperative.org/townshend-act/. So, no cause and effect here — just pure coincidence. The Townshend Duties of 1767 New Taxes on Lead, Paint, Paper, Glass and Tea Enrage the Colonists O ne year after the repeal of the Stamp Act, King George III and Parliament attempted to tax the colonists again when they passed the Townshend Duties. But even with this repeal, the damage was done, the fire already set, to the relationship between England and its colonies. The first round of protests were calm — Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia petitioned the king to express their concern. In total, there were five separate laws that made up the Townshend Acts: The New York Restraining Act of 1767 prevented New York’s colonial government from passing new laws until it complied with the Quartering Act of 1765, which said that colonists had to provide and pay for the lodging of British soldiers stationed in the colonies. Townshend believed himself a genius because he really thought the laws he proposed would not be met with the same resistance in the colonies that the Stamp Act was. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Townshend-Acts, Boston Tea Party Ships and Museum - Townshend Acts, United States History - The Townshend Acts, Townshend Acts - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Townshend Acts - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Parliament decided to keep the tax on tea partially to continue its protection of the East India Company, but also to maintain the precedent that Parliament did, in fact, actually have the right to tax the colonists… you know, if it wanted. It was passed explicitly to assert authority in the colonies. The Suspending Act prohibited the New York Assembly from conducting any further business until it complied with the financial requirements of the Quartering Act (1765) for the expenses of British troops stationed there. It began in early 1768 and lasted until 1770, and although it didn’t have the intended effect of crippling British trade and forcing the laws to be repealed, it did show the colonists’ ability to work together to resist the Crown. It also gave local officials more power to deal with smugglers and those attempting to evade paying royal taxes — all designed to help improve the profitability of the colonies to the Crown, and also more firmly establish the rule of (British) law in America. The Townshend Acts imposed a new tax on wine, fruits, white and green glass (chinaware), red and white lead, painter’s colors, paper and pasteboard. The third act established strict and often arbitrary machinery of customs collection in the American colonies, including additional officers, searchers, spies, coast guard vessels, search warrants, writs of assistance, and a Board of Customs Commissioners at Boston, all to be financed out of customs revenues. In 1767, the king of England, George III, found himself with a situation on his hands. The Townshend Duties, formally known as the Townshend Acts, was a tax passed by the British.It was named for Charles Townshend, who was the British Prime Minister at the time.He spearheaded the acts, but he died before the detrimental effects were clear. Seeing as two of the five laws passed as part of the Townshend Acts dealt with taxes and duties on goods colonists commonly used, a natural protest was to boycott these goods. Ancient Civilizations Timeline: 16 Oldest Known Cultures From Around The World. Nonimportation. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). THE TOWNSHEND ACTS. Charles Townshend (1725-1767), the second son of the Charles, 3rd Viscount Townshend, and his wife Ethelreda Harrison, is best known for the American Revenue Act of 1767 that bears his name as the "Townshend duties." To do this, Patriots took to the press, writing about the issues of the day in newspapers and other publications. If your web page requires an HTML link, please insert this code: Townshend Act of 1767: Definition, Date, and Duties, Gods of Death How old is the United States of America? It lowered commercial duties on tea imported to England by the East India Company and gave the company a refund of the duty for tea that was then exported to the colonies. After the Townshend Acts, the Crown and Parliament would continue to attempt to exert more control over the colonies, but this just led to more and more rebellion, creating the conditions needed for the colonists to declare independence and initiate the American Revolution. The Grafton ministry adopted an energetic American policy, thanks in part to Townshend, who pushed through Parliament in the spring of 1767 his famous duties on tea, glass, lead, and papers. Townshend Acts, (June 15–July 2, 1767), in colonial U.S. history, series of four acts passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to assert what it considered to be its historic right to exert authority over the colonies through suspension of a recalcitrant representative assembly and through strict provisions for the collection of revenue duties. With tying their salary into this act, Townshend believed their loyalty would be more to the British government and crown as a result. The Indemnity Act of 1767 lowered the taxes that the British East India Company had to pay to import tea to England. Any troops on the western front were not included and were paid for out of the British treasury. Compensating for the loss of revenue brought about by the Indemnity Act was another reason for the imposition of the Townshend duties. This was a direct attempt to rein in the often unruly colonial government and place it back into the service of the British. It turns out the colonies rejected all taxes — direct, indirect, internal, external, sales, income, any and all — that were levied without proper representation in Parliament. Coincidentally, on the same day as that conflict — March 5, 1770 — Parliament voted to repeal all of the Townshend Acts except the tax on tea. Resistance to the Townshend Acts grew slowly. In 1768, after such outspoken protest against the Townshend Acts, Parliament was a tad concerned about the colony of Massachusetts — specifically the city of Boston — and its loyalty to the Crown. The assembly had refused to pay for the food, drink, housing, and transportation of British soldiers in New York. What protest in response to the Townshend Acts killed several people because British soldiers panicked? With the Townshend Act, new duties were placed on imports of glass, lead, paper, tea to the Colonies from Great Britain. November 1, 1765 – Date the Stamp Act was to take effect but with no one to distribute the stamps, the act could not take effect. Why Did Parliament Pass the Townshend Acts? Townshend introduced the four acts, and Parliament passed them in June and July 1767. As a result of widespread protest in the American colonies, Parliament began to partially repeal the Townshend duties. This decision led to a series of new laws, known collectively as the Townshend Acts, designed to improve the administration of the colonies and improve their ability to generate revenue for the Crown. The Townshend Acts were four laws enacted by the British Parliament in 1767 that imposed and enforced the collection of taxes on the American colonies. Accessed December 2, 2020. Designed as a smarter way to raise revenue as opposite to the heavy-handed Stamp Actnullified a year earlier. But Charles Townshend would not live to see the full extent of his signature program. The acts posed an immediate threat to established traditions of colonial self-government, especially the practice of taxation through representative provincial assemblies. There are three different ways you can cite this article. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Townshend Acts or Townshend Duties, refers to a series of British acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 relating to the British colonies in America. By the same act,a drawback for five years applied to tea re-exported f… Colonists not only objected to the new duties, but also to the way they were to be spent--and to the new bureaucracy that was to collect them. Updates? Scuba Diving History: A Deep Dive into the Depths, The Wilmot Proviso: Definition, Date, and Purpose, iPhone History: A Timeline of Every Model in Order, The First Movie Ever Made: Why and when films were invented, The History of Hollywood: The Film Industry Exposed. The most famous and influential of these were the “Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania,” which were published in a series from December 1767 through January 1768.