Mangrove wood is still the main resource used for fish smoking in areas of Cameroon other than Kribi (Angoni et al., 2015). In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. Mangrove Charcoal is very hard and dense; it burns hotter and longer if compared to any other natural charcoal. Get your smoke from wood – This may seem obvious. I am also grateful to Pr. (b) Waste from beach. Small-scale fish smokers (47.7%), who we classify as having wood expenses less than or equal to 70€, were mostly located in Batoke, Esobe, Njonji, and Bakingili. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. This use of mangroves is often of great importance. We also found that the smoking time is almost 90% less than that of a traditional oven. Figure 7. endobj Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. The FAO studies in 2008 showed that cinderblock ovens reduced wood consumption by 50% over traditional ovens. 2008-09-15T17:30:12-06:00 The cinderblock ovens use over 50% less wood than the traditional ovens, reduce workloads, improve the product’s value, and thus increase fish smokers’ income. 4 0 obj Finally, my biggest thanks go to the fish smokers for their collaboration in this study. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. Figure 3 shows wood utilization intensity in our study sites. Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. The flora consists essentially of tree species with a dominance of Rhizophora racemosa. Three statistical tests were performed using R software. Mangrove Charcoal is a great source for BBQ or grilling. However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. Questions were designed to elicit gender, marital status, age, study level, number of family members, nationality, and main professional activity (fishing, fish smoker, or fish seller). The restocking frequency varied from one fish smoker to another and was also affected by the season and the availability of fish. The main activity for men was fishing. Wanda_Ra . The wildlife is dominated by vertebrate such as fish, birds, and reptiles, but there are also invertebrates such as crabs and molluscs (Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014). We found that 98% of respondents have a preference for wood for smoking because it allow them not only to quickly reach and maintain the required temperature for fish smoking, but also to solve issues linked to physicochemical properties such as color because as Knockaert (1999) explains, fish color depends on the type of wood used during smoking. (2014) the sector is characterized by high levels of illiteracy 85%, 89%, and 95%, respectively. Photo by Helen Scales. Effective mangrove conservation measures thus need urgently to be employed to avoid both socioeconomic and ecological disasters. This difference is likely due to different wood species being used, as well as to varying costs. Among the first choice, 71% used mangrove wood (Rhizophora racemosa) and 20% Azobe (Lophira alata). For my mangrove … The initiative stops the deforestation of mangrove wood as the women now use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke the fish. Figure 5. Indeed, there was a significant difference (t = 11.559, df = 242, p = .00035) between wood quantities and fish quantities. The questionnaire elicited detailed data about the wood fuel used, such as how, where, and how often wood is collected or purchased, and at what cost. Several oven types were used in the study sites, but 99.6% of fish smokers used a traditional oven (banda). The Pearson r linear correlation test was performed to determine the degree of correlation between the amount of wood used and the quantity of fish smoked. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. Besides mangrove forests, this study revealed that 35% of wood comes from continental forests and 3% from home gardens. Before beginning fieldwork, interviews were held with staff at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), who had a good knowledge of the study site, and were able to advise us on locations. This study found that 99.59% of respondents use traditional ovens. However, once you learn about the different types of wood for smoking meat, you will find those great few choices that will suit your personal tastes in no time. 1,315 mangrove wood products are offered for sale by suppliers on, of which charcoal accounts for 29%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 1%. Globally, mangrove forests are the most threatened tropical ecosystem and are being degraded and depleted at alarming rates (Polidoro et al., 2010). The purpose of this study was to address issues around fish smoking in the region through answering the following questions: Who are the fish smokers? Table 2 shows the different alternative sources of energy used. Although wood smoking contributes to the physicochemical properties of fish, it does not always achieve fish smokers’ goals. Our study also found that 52.7% of fish smokers were foreigners, which is contrary to the finding of Fall, Tounkara, Diop, Thiaw, and Thonart (2014), who worked on a socioeconomic and technological study of the production of fermented and dried fish (Guedj) in Senegal, and who found that only 10% of fish smokers were foreigners. Pouokam (2011) found that 55% of wood came from continental forests, 23% from home gardens, and 5% from mangrove forests. A study by Cameroon Ecology shows that 750 m 3 of mangrove wood is used every year for smoking fish at the local level. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Population growth has greatly increased the pressure on these resources in recent years. uuid:f2839f3c-b169-4c67-9999-8eb88f192f10 The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. Preliminary quantitative impact assessment of wood extraction on the mangroves of Douala-Edea Forest Reserve, Cameroon, Utilisation du bois dans les pêcheries côtières du Cameroun [The use of wood in Cameroon’s coastal fisheries], Performance d’un dispositif amélioré de fumage (four Chorkor) sur la qualité du poisson fumé dans la commune d’Aplahoué (Sud-est du Bénin)/[Performance of an improved smoking device (Chorkor furnace) on the quality of smoked fish in the municipality of Aplahoue (Southeast Benin)], Évaluation de la qualité microbiologique du chinchard (Trachurus trachurus) au cours du processus de fumage traditionnel [Assessment of the microbiological quality of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) during the traditional smoking process], Nouveau concept de séchage et de fumage artisanal des aliments: Application en milieu de pêche artisanale au Gabon [New concept of artisanal drying and smoking of food: Implementation in artisanal fisheries in Gabon], Etude socio-économique et technologique de la production du poisson fermenté et séché (Guedj) au Sénégal [Socioeconomic and technological study of the production of fermented and dried fish (Guedj) in Senegal], Sustainable utilization of mangroves using improved fish-smoking systems: A management perspective from the Douala-Edea wildlife reserve, Cameroon, The implications of wood exploitation for fish smoking on mangrove ecosystem conservation in the South West Province, Cameroon. The study found that 60.5% of fish smokers had at least 10 years of experience in smoking. Figure 3. Two lots of wood (120 pieces/lot). Furthermore, the resulting product is better and less carcinogenic, and therefore could be more valuable. Figure 10 shows oven preferences. The majority of fish smokers were from Cameroon (47.3%), followed by Ghana (23.45%), Nigeria (22.63%), and Benin (6.6%). The bark was also used in the tanning process as a black dye for animal skins. Data were collected through the interviews which focused on respondents’ socioeconomic, demographic, and professional characteristics as well as their daily activities. All products such as Mangrove charcoal, Coconut shell charcoal or Sawdust briquette can be used for Barbeque, heating and stove fuel, incense and guacharo wood burning, hookah smoking … Read my article on soaking wood. Alejandro Estrada View or download all the content the society has access to. Rhizophora is especially popular because its wood is heavy, burns with even heat and gives off little smoke. It has shown that wood plays a major role in the energy supply of the rural population. They were also asked to quantify their oven capacity (the maximum number of kilograms of fish it could hold at one go) and the amount of wood needed to smoke this quantity. Interviews were conducted in the fish smoker’s kitchens. Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? This may be due to the Muslim culture in these countries, which may prevent women from going to school. The one-way analysis of variance was performed in order to compare wood consumption between different communities, compare different oven yields, and determine if there was any correlation between the amount of wood used and the experience of fish smokers. Most fish smokers used only two species: 64.6% did not use a third choice species. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. This dependence on red mangrove wood is due to its capacity to produce a great amount of heat energy (Ajonina & Usongo, 2001). There is still virtually no infrastructure and access is by canoe. Villagers like mangrove wood for limekilns because it’s dense and burns hot enough to fully cook the shells into lime. Acrobat Distiller 8.1.0 (Windows); modified using iText 4.2.0 by 1T3XT Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Many fish smokers in Cameroon, particularly those in the south west region, have at least primary school education. We can create ovens that consume less wood," he said. Several wood species were used as firewood. Suspended ovens have a large capacity (can take 1,500 kg) for fish and consume 500 kg to 3,360 kg of wood with a smoking time ranging from 48 to 96 hr (2–4 days). A., Carpenter, K. E., Collins, L., Duke, N. C., Ellison, A. M., Ellison, J. C., Livingstone, S. R. (. According to Degnon et al. For this reason, it … Wood chips. The most used alternative source of fuel was waste collected from the beach (Figure 5(a)). Rubber tree wood was the most used second choice species. This site uses cookies. The action of the shells moving together excavates a hole through the wood, and the wood shavings accumulate in the stomach which becomes a distended, worm-like bag. The Moringa tree is a drought-resistant and fast-growing tree that rejuvenates soil. Resource renewal is also threatened, as long-term conservation plans are not in operation in most areas, and little or nothing is being done to address the overconsumption of this resource. The surveys comprised semistructured interviews based on a questionnaire which were designed with help of the IRAD team. What is the main type of wood used as fuel, what does it cost, and where does it come from? Distance to the collection site and the cost of the wood were less important. treat fish like fish Post Options . While sometimes used as bait, mullet make an excellent choice for smoking or frying. We hope that this study will help underscore the alarming rate of mangrove depletion and thus encourage decision makers to implement conservation strategies for the sustainable management of mangrove forests through measures that also take into account the socioeconomic conditions of local populations. Report Post Likes(0) Quote Reply Posted: 25 Jan 2010 at 12:19pm. Wood from a mangrove tree. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. smoke for making babies strong (Belyuen) axe handles and digging sticks (Belyuen) Aegialitis annulata ... An important bivalve which is found in dead and decaying mangrove wood is called "mangrove worm", Teredo spp. (a) Plantain and cassava peel. Angoni et al. However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Acrobat PDFMaker 8.1 for Word Several wood species are cut for activities such as cooking food, baking bread, house construction, or building canoes, but fish smoking remains the main drive behind tree felling. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Ekomy, Bruneau, Mbega, and Aregba (2013), in their study of new concepts in the artisanal drying and smoking of food in Gabon, found that traditional longitudinal ovens have a ratio of 4.17 with a smoking time of 72 hr. These differences are due to the fact that in Pouokam’s (2011) study site, the mangrove forest stocks are almost exhausted, and this is putting pressure on other species such as forest trees and fruit trees. In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). The result is that mangrove forests continue to be depleted at an uncontrolled rate. The different uses of mangrove wood were similar in all sites, but the quantities of wood extracted from different sites varied, with sites of high fish landings registering the highest fuel-wood turnover. Mangroves are known to sequester much more carbon than continental forests (Cordonnier, 2011). The conservation of mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic (Tiéga & Ouédraogo, 2012). During this first trip, nine fishing communities were identified (Figure 1) and invited to take part in the study. This study also showed that 47% of wood used by fish smokers comes from mangrove forests. Our choice of fieldwork sites was thus partly determined by the relationship that the IRAD and MINEPIA had with fishing communities. uuid:41068db8-7c95-45a4-b75c-e44a9a443952 The site is bordered to the north by Korup National Park, to the east by the city of Kumba, to the south by the Mungo river, and to the west by the Akwafe river, which forms the border between Cameroon and Nigeria (the Bakassi Peninsula). Forests are clearly under great pressure. The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. For many people, it is their sole livelihood. Figure 9. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. This large gap could be explained by the fact that there were not many cinderblock ovens in our study site which prevented us being able to make a thorough estimate of cinderblock oven performance. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangrove forests in Cameroon through assessing the impact of fish smoking activities on mangrove resources. Through structured and semistructured questionnaires, 243 fish smokers were interviewed in 9 local markets. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. The largest scale fish smokers in the study area were Ghanaian, the majority of whom (62%) were located in Idenau. The Best Charcoal for Barbecue and Grilling. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. NB: Other refers to wood species very rarely used (species that have been cited less than 5 times in total). Lumber Scraps. The hydrography is characterized by the Andokat and Rio Del Rey rivers, which converge in an estuary (Olivry, cited in Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). The study site is a coastal area, where there are many elongated banks of dry land. We found that cinderblock ovens have a smoking time of 5 hr. Mangrove Wooden Charcoal is Thailand hardwood charcoal produced from high quality mangrove branches and trunk wood. Eight percent of fish smokers did not mention any second choice species because they used only one species for their activities. Different Oven Type Performance. Seventy-four percent of respondents said that the mangrove forests were depleted, 20% said they did not know and 6% said this was not the case. For fish it is recommended to use mild woods like apple, cherry or alder to prevent overpowering the flavor of the meat. Post Reply. In just 10 years, national territory mangrove forests in Cameroon have decreased from 250,000 hectares to 134,400 hectares (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007; Hamilton & Casey, 2016). Because of population pressure, this artisanal technique of preservation consumes greater quantities of mangrove wood each year and is having a progressively detrimental impact on mangrove forest sustainability. Suspended iron bandas were the most common, used by 75.3% of our respondents. Our mangrove wood is 100% legally harvested, processed and exported under the most strict international exports standards and we are shipping the best mangrove charcoal for BBQ all over the world. SAGE Publications Inc, unless otherwise noted. Timber species such as Ilomba, Paduk, Zingana, and Tali were less commonly used as firewood. Levels of education of fish smokers according to respondents. 1 0 obj (c) Coconut shell. They use the oldest trees because large logs keep the fire going without refueling. In this Florida Keys fishing video, join us for a day of flats fishing in the lower keys on our flats boat. For communities living in remote fishing villages in northwest Madagascar, hot smoking is providing a lifeline, enabling them to better preserve their fish The increasing demand for mangrove wood and the steady encroachment and spread of the nypa palm, an invasive mangrove plant… This is not the case in all countries. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. They are also safer to use, in that they do not generate as much heat and smoke as traditional ovens, and they smoke fish more cleanly (so that the fish are less carcinogenic). The overexploitation of mangroves also threatens the sustainability of fish smoking activities. The main reason was the capacity of the species to provide heat energy, followed by the ability of the species to color the fish attractively (Figure 4) and also to be in constant supply without any shortages. Studies in Benin, Togo, and Ivory coast (Abotchi, 2010; Chabi et al., 2014; Oulaï et al., 2007) have found, like us, that all fish smokers are women. Thus, although the traditional ovens have a larger capacity per smoking session, the amount smoked per kg of wood is far less compared to the cinderblock oven, the smoking time is longer and the cost of wood is far higher. Fishing camps have been widely established throughout them, and mangrove wood is harvested for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. <>stream Mangrove wood consumption for cooking and fish smoking from the Efasou community is estimated at 16 and 97m. The majority of fish smokers (68%) preferred traditional ovens to the new cinderblock oven because they have a large capacity and are known to be durable. Size matters. It also cools the fire. Historically, indigenous people gathered the leaves for this salt, and the wood was an important fuel source for smoking fish. Oven types in study site. The wood is considered very eco-friendly, as some Mango plantations harvest the trees for lumber after they have completed their useful fruit-bearing lifespan. 2020-12-02T18:09:39-08:00 These figures are supported by Chesnes (2009) in his study on the implementation of a Clean Development Mechanism project for the improvement of fish smoking ovens in the Douala-Edea reserve, who found it takes 3 to 4 days to smoke fish in a traditional oven. They sometimes spend up to 400€ per month on wood and are mainly Ghanaian (47%) and Nigerian (30%). In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. During the peak smoking period, large-scale fish smokers spend an average of 200€ per month on purchasing wood. Qualitative data from the interviewers and questionnaires, and quantitative data from respondents’ consumption monitoring sheets, were analyzed for each site with Excel 2010 software. Our study marks an exception to Le Bigot & Ribier’s (2004) findings that west African tradeswomen do not receive as much schooling as their male counterparts. 2020-12-02T18:09:39-08:00 This discrepancy with our study may be due to the fact that our sample was governed by the relationship between government (IRAD, MINEPIA) and the fish smokers who participated in our study. Indeed, this study found that red mangrove is the favored wood for fish smokers. Those from Benin did less fish smoking and therefore consumed less wood than others. There is an urgent need to address the sustainable management of this vital coastal ecosystem. Primary school was the highest education level for most respondents (42.4%), 26% had secondary level. These were suspended iron bandas (Figure 9(a)), suspended wooden bandas (Figure 9(b)), or circular ovens (Figure 9(c)). Mango was the most used third choice species (used by 15% of all respondents), and fruit trees were occasionally used. Other accelerating factors in mangrove destruction have been the modernization of wood cutting equipment, particularly the introduction of chainsaws, and the greater availability of large pirogues, powered by outboard engines, which enable easier access to the mangroves stands (Din & Blasco, 2003). In the Wouri estuary, for example, 80% of Nigerian fishermen abuse the mangrove woods to smoke their fish. In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. H��Wَ��}�W�CH��fI�� �##�$h%~��YZ. Oven preference by zone according to respondents. When they were used, it was usually only branches which were harvested. They are Orange trees, Palm trees, Ilomba, Paduk, Taiga wood, Tali, plum trees, apple trees, Kolumba, and Zingana. By continuing to browse Our study focused on fish smoking activities in Ndian and Fako, in the southwest region of Cameroon. The amount of wood and fish that can be used at any one time depends on oven size. Fifteen percent of respondents did not use any alternative sources of energy saying that wood was sufficient for their physicochemical requirements. This gap is due to the fact that Azobe is not as widespread in the south-west region of Cameroon as it is in the southern region and also that red mangrove wood is still available, unlike in Kribi. Indeed, there is a significant difference (F = 17.348, df = 243, p = .00012) between wood consumption in the nine communities. Villages located far from mangrove forests, or in areas where mangrove supplies have been exhausted, have collection teams to transport firewood on canoes, which they then sell. We also found that fish smoking processes are not random. In the south-west region of the country, pressure on woody resources such as mangrove is particularly extreme. Thus, some fish smokers used alternative energy sources (Figure 5), as well as firewood, in order to improve physical aspects of the fish, most usually the color. A suspended wooden banda may last only 5 months, although, on average, traditional oven lasts about 6 years compared to 13 years for a cinderblock oven. Soils are essentially gray or black vases, with silty textures, sandy, or clayey. It is clear that cinderblock ovens are more economical. However, and perhaps most significantly, it is also due to the fact that the fish smokers surveyed by Djessouho (2015) used very small circular ovens, unlike the fish smokers in our study, the majority of whom used big suspended ovens. Quality Charcoal & Smoking Supplies For Sale We stock quality charcoal ranging from Australian Made Mallee Root and Redgum to Imported Mangrove. Members Profile. In their study on fish smoking in the same region as ours, N. Z. Feka and Manzano (2008) found that 62% of wood used for fish smoking is mangrove wood. Our study found that all the fish smokers were women from Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, and Benin. Fishing and fish smoking allows entire families to subsist; nearly 1,018 people were supported by the 243 fish smokers studied. This study found that there is a strong correlation between the amount of wood burnt and the type of oven used. Fishing and hunting are the main human activities. These were selected according to their location (proximity to the IRAD)—as we needed to visit them 4 times a week. Related Species: None available. The least used alternative energy source were coconut shells (Figure 5(c)) and palm kernel waste (Figure 5(d)). Our study found that with traditional ovens, smoking approximately 20 kg of fish cost 7€, about 3.7 times higher than the 2€ cited by Djessouho (2015) in his socioeconomic analysis of fish smoking in Benin. As it cannot be prohibited, strategies need urgently to be introduced to regulate mangrove wood consumption. Quote Wanda_Ra. However, Pouokam (2011), who worked on the firewood sector in the Kribi fisheries, found that smokers used Sambi (Uapaca guineensis). (d) Cinderblock oven. They were Eyengue, Idenau, Esobe, Njonji, Debundsha, Bakingili, Batoke, Down beach, and Tiko. The Pearson Correlation Test (r = .952) showed a strong correlation between the amount of wood consumed and the number of fish smoked. Custom hand-crafted dog kennel crate furniture for you and a forever home for your best friend. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21), Biology and distribution of mangrove crabs in the Wouri River Estuary, Douala, Cameroon, Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique des poissons Etmalosz fimbriata et Sardinella aurita fumés traditionnellement [Assessment of the microbiological quality of Etmalosz fimbriata and Sardinella aurita fish traditionally smoked], The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. This questionnaire had several components. Despite the better performance of cinderblock ovens, they are not widely used, either because smokers are unwilling to try to the new ovens or because they do not know about them. NB: It takes 15 pieces like the one in Figure 6 to form a line. The study was conducted in Ndian and Fako department, in the south-west region of Cameroon. Figure 2. This result is also supported by Ndiaye and Diei-Ouadi (2009) who report a result of 2€ of fuel per 100 kg of fish for a cinderblock oven compared to 5€ for a traditional oven.
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